1. The problematics of defining the Holocaust and constructing histories of the Holocaust - key texts 29 items
    1. Years of persecution, years of extermination: Saul Friedländer and the future of Holocaust studies - Paul Betts, Christian Wiese c2010

      Book Recommended Read Saul Frieldander's essay 'Towards an integrated history of the Holocaust: Possibilities and challenges' (pp. 21-29)

    2. The Causes of the Holocaust - TIMOTHY SNYDER 2012

      Article Recommended Published in Contemporary European History 21: 2 (2012): 149-168

    3. Eastern Europe as the Site of Genocide - Omer Bartov 09/2008

      Article Recommended Published in Journal of Modern History 80:3 (2008): 557-593

    4. Jewish Histories of the Holocaust: New Transnational Approaches - Norman J.W. Goda 2014 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended Read Part I. Theoretical Overviews, with essays by Dan Michman ('The Jewish dimension of the Holocaust in dire straits? Current challenges of interpretation and scope') and Timothy Snyder ('The Holocaust as regional history: Explaining the bloodlands'). Available as an ebook and in hard copy

    5. Writing the Holocaust - Jean-Marc Dreyfus, Daniel R. Langton 2011

      Book Recommended Boaz Cohen, "Jews, Jewish Studies and Holocaust Historiography" (100-15)

    6. The problematics of defining, naming and constructing histories of the Holocaust - further reading 15 items
      1. Holocaust historiography: emergence, challenges, polemics and achievements - David Bankier, Dan Mikhman 2008

        Book Background Read Part I: The development of research in retrospect: Some overviews - essays by Raul Hilberg ('The development of Holocaust research - a personal overview'), Dan Michman ('Is there an "Israeli school" of Holocaust research?') and David Engel ('Holocaust research and Jewish historiography: Mutual influences')

      2. Holocaust scholarship: personal trajectories and professional interpretations 2015 (electronic resource)

        Book Background Read essays by Christopher Browning ('The personal contexts of a Holocaust historian: War, politics, trials and professional rivalry'), David Cesarani ('Autobiographical reflections on writing history, the Holocaust and hairdressing') and Michael Marrus ('"Lessons" of the Holocaust and the ceaseless, discordant search for meaning').

      3. Rethinking the Holocaust - Yehuda Bauer 2001

        Book Background Yehuda Bauer, "What was the Holocaust" (1-13), "Is the Holocaust Explicable?" (14-38) and "Speech to the Bundestag" (261-73)

      4. Probing the ethics of Holocaust culture 2016

        Book Background Read Wulf Wansteiner, 'Sense and sensibility: The complicated Holocaust realism of Christopher Browning' (pp. 79-103) and Browning's 'A response to Wulf Kansteiner' (pp. 104-112)

      5. Whatever happened to British Jewish studies? - Hannah Ewence, Tony Kushner 2012

        Book Background Read David Cesarani's essay "How post-war Britain reflected on the Nazi persecution and mass murder of Europe's Jews: A reassessment of early responses" (pp. 99-135)

      6. Israeli Holocaust research: birth and evolution - Boaz Cohen 2013

        Book Background

      7. The Holocaust and history: the known, the unknown, the disputed and the re-examined - Michael Berenbaum, Abraham J. Peck 1998

        Book Background Read Raul Hilberg's essay "Sources and their Uses" (pp. 5-11)

      8. ‘Pissing in the Wind’? The Search for Nuance in the Study of Holocaust ‘Bystanders’ - Tony Kushner

        Article Background Published in Journal of Holocaust Education 9:2 (2000): 57-76

      9. Debates on the holocaust - Tom Lawson 2010

        Book Background Read the chapter '"The theory and practice of hell": Post-war interpretations of the genocide of the Jews' (pp. 17-51)

      10. Lessons and legacies: volume XI: Expanding perspectives on the Holocaust in a changing world - Hilary Camille Earl, Karl A. Schleunes, Lessons & Legacies Conference 2014

        Book Recommended Read Timothy Snyder's essay 'Holocaust history: An agenda for renewal' (pp. 357-368)

      11. Lessons and legacies: 3: Memory, memorialization and denial - Peter Hayes 1999

        Book Background Read Alan Steinweis' essay "The Holocaust and Jewish Studies" (pp. 28-32)

      12. The Holocaust and historical methodology - Dan Stone 2012

        Book Background Read Zoe Waxman, 'Transcending history? Methodological problems in Holocaust testimony' (pp. 143-157) and Doris Bergen, 'Studying the Holocaust: Is history commemoration?' (158-177). Available as an ebook and in hard copy

      13. What is the Holocaust? - Moshe Zimmermann 06/2014

        Article Background Published in Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History 20:1-2: 45-56

      14. Diversity and Design: The "Twisted Road" and the Regional Turn in Holocaust History - H. Zukier 01/12/2013

        Article Background Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 27:3 (2013): 387-410

    7. Naming the Holocaust 8 items
      1. Shoah: the paradigmatic genocide : essays in exegesis and eisegesis - Zev Garber c1994

        Book Recommended Read the chapter 'Why do we call the Holocaust "the Holocaust"?' (pp. 51-66)

      2. The secular word Holocaust: Scholarly myths, history, and 20th century meanings - Jon Petrie 03/2000

        Article Recommended Published in Journal of Genovide Research 2:1 (2000): 31-63

      3. The holocaust in history and memory: Vol. 3 (2010): The porrajmos : the "gypsy holocaust" and the continuing discrimination of Roma and Sinti after 1945 - Rainer Schultze 2010

        Book Recommended Read Ian Hancock's essay "On the Interpretation of a Word: Porrajmos as Holocaust" (pp. 19-23)

      4. A Name for Extermination - Anna-Vera Sullam Calimani 10/1999

        Article Recommended Published in Modern Language Review 94:4 (1999): 978-999

      5. Jews and other differences: the new Jewish cultural studies - Daniel Boyarin, Jonathan Boyarin 1997

        Book Background Read Vivian Patraka's essay "Situating History and Difference: The Performance of the Term Holocaust in Public Discourse" (54-78)

      6. The Holocaust and other genocides: history, representation, ethics - Helmut Walser Smith 2002

        Book Background Read pp. 93-97

      7. Writing and rewriting the Holocaust: narrative and the consequences of interpretation - James Edward Young c1988

        Book Background Read pp. 83-98

      8. A war against memory?: the future of Holocaust remembrance - Isabel Wollaston 1996

        Book Background Read pp. 1-5

  2. The Holocaust and modernity: Social engineering, racial hygiene and the 'euthanasia programmes - key texts 21 items
    1. Social outsiders in Nazi Germany - Robert Gellately, Nathan Stoltzfus 2001

      Book Recommended Read Henry Friedlander's essay 'The exclusion and murder of the disabled' (145-164)

    2. Holocaust: origins, implementation, aftermath - Omer Bartov 2000

      Book Recommended Read Henry Friedlander's essay 'Step by step: The expansion of murder, 1939-1941' (pp. 63-76)

    3. The origins of Nazi genocide [electronic resource] : from euthanasia to the final solution - Friedlander, Henry 1930- 1995

      Book Recommended Read pp. 23-38, 86-186, 246-62. Available as an ebook and in hard copy. In addition pp. 1-22 and 304-309 are reprinted in Simone Gigliotti and Berel Lang (eds.), The Holocaust: A Reader (pp. 92-123)

    4. Ethics and extermination - Michael Burleigh 1997

      Book Recommended Read the chapter 'Psychiatry, German society and the Nazi 'euthanasia' programme' (pp. 113-129). Available as an ebook and in hard copy

    5. A Mosaic of victims: non-Jews persecuted and murdered by the Nazis - Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- c1990.

      Book Recommended Read Robert Jay Lifton's essay 'Sterilization and euthanasia' (pp. 222-228). Available as an ebook and in hard copy

    6. Reverberations of Nazi violence in Germany and beyond [electronic resource] : disturbing pasts 2016

      Book Recommended Read Susanne Knittel's essay 'Autobiography, moral witnessing, and the disturbing memory of Nazi euthanasia'

    7. Science and the Swastika - Saskia Brown 2004 (videorecording)

      Audio-visual document Recommended

    8. Further reading: 14 items
      1. The Holocaust in history and memory: Vol. 5 (2012): Euthanasia killings : the treatment of disabled people in Nazi Germany and disability since 1945 - Rainer Schulze 2012

        Book Background In particular read Rainer Schulze's essay 'October, 1939: "life unworthy of life": From coerced sterilization to Aktion T4 - stepping stones to genocide' (pp. 13-28), and Susanne Knittel's essay 'Beyond testimony: Nazi euthansia and the field of memory studies' (pp. 85-102)

      2. Lessons and legacies: the meaning of the holocaust in a changing world - Peter Hayes 1991

        Book Recommended Read Claudia Koonz' essay "Genocide and eugenics" (pp. 155-77)

      3. Deadly medicine: creating the master race - Dieter Kuntz, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 2004

        Book Recommended Read the essays by Gisela Bock ('Nazi sterilization and reproductuve policies'); Michael Burleigh ('Nazi "euthanasia" programs')and Henry Friedlander ('From "Euthanasia" to the "Final Solution"'). The catalogue to accompany an exhibition created by the USHMM, which went on to travel around both the USA and Europe.

      4. Deadly Medicine - S. BACHRACH 01/06/2007

        Article Background Published in Public Historian 29:3 (2007): 19-32. Bacharach was curator of the USHMM's exhibition 'Deadly Medicine'.

      5. Racial hygiene: medicine under the Nazis - Robert Proctor c1988

        Book Recommended Read pp. 5-117, 177-222

      6. Selling Murder: The Secret Propaganda Films of the Third Reich - YouTube

        Audio-visual document Background A documentary based on the research of Michael Burleigh, first broadcast on Channel 4 in 1991

      7. The Routledge history of the Holocaust - Jonathan C. Friedman 2010

        Book Background Read Kirk Allison's essay 'Eugenics, race hygiene, and the Holocaust: Antecedents and consolidations' (pp. 5-58) and Patricia Heberer's essay "The Nazi 'euthanasia' program" (pp. 125-36)

      8. Modernity and the holocaust - Zygmunt Bauman 1989

        Book Background Read the chapter 'Modernity, racism, extermination II' (pp. 61-82)

      9. Experience and expression: women, the Nazis, and the Holocaust - Elizabeth Roberts Baer, Myrna Goldenberg c2003

        Book Background Read Susan Benedict's essay "Caring while killing: Nursing in the Euthanasia centers" (pp. 95-110). Available both as an ebook and in hard copy.

      10. Confronting the 'good death': Nazi euthanasia on trial, 1945-1953 - Michael S. Bryant 2005

        Book Background Read the chapter 'The emperor of ice-cream: Ntionalist Socialist euthanasia, 1933-1945' (pp. 19-62)

      11. Historical Uncanny [electronic resource] : Disability, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Holocaust Memory - Knittel, Susanne C. 2014

        Book Background Read the chapter 'Remembering euthanasia: Grafeneck as Heterotopia' (pp. 33-71)

      12. The Nazi doctors: medical killing and the psychology of genocide - Robert Jay Lifton 1986

        Book Background Read Part I. '"Life unworthy of life": The genetic cure' (pp. 21-144)

      13. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. - Robert N. Proctor, Henry Friedlander 02/1997

        Article Background Review of Friedlander's book by Proctor, published in American Historical Review 102:1 (1997): 128-129

      14. William L. Shirer and International Awareness of the Nazi “Euthanasia” Program - Thorsten Noack 12/2016

        Article Background Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 30:3 (2016): 433-457

  3. The 'German-Jewish symbiosis', social death and the impact of the Holocaust on German-Jewish identities - primary sources 29 items
    1. My German Question - PETER GAY 1998

      Article Essential Published in American Scholar 67:4 (1998): 25-49

    2. I shall bear witness: the diaries of Victor Klemperer, 1933-41 - Victor Klemperer 1998

      Book Recommended

    3. To the bitter end: the diaries of Victor Klemperer 1942-45 - Victor Klemperer, Martin Chalmers 2000

      Book Recommended

    4. At the mind's limits: contemplations by a survivor on Auschwitz and its realities - Jean Améry c1980

      Book Recommended Read the essay 'How much home does a person need?' (pp. 41-61)

    5. On the Necessity and Impossibility of Being a Jew - Jean Amery, Sidney Rosenfeld, Stella Rosenfeld 21/1980

      Article Background An influential essay on the impact of the Holocaust on Amery's Jewish identity from At the Mind's Limits, reprinted in New German Critique 20:2: 15-29

    6. Secondary literature - Recommended reading 7 items
      1. The "German-Jewish Symbiosis" Revisited

        Article Recommended Article by Marion Kaplan, published in New German Critique 70 (1997): 183-90

      2. Between dignity and despair : Jewish life in Nazi Germany - Kaplan, Marion A. author. 1999

        Book Background Read Introduction pp. 3-16), chapter 1 'In public: Jews are turned into pariahs, 1933-1938 (pp. 17-49) and 'Conclusion' (pp. 229-237)

      3. "Lately, Almost Constantly, Everything Seems Small to Me": The Lived Space of German Jews under the Nazi Regime - Miron, Guy Fall 2013

        Article Recommended Published in Jewish Social Studies 20:1 (2013): 121-149

      4. Germans and Jews--the Symbiosis That Failed - Plaut, W Gunther Fall 1991

        Article Recommended Published in Judaism 40:4 (1991): 531-542)

      5. The "Folk Community" and the Persecution of the Jews: German Society under National Socialist Dictatorship, 1933-1945 - Frank Bajohr 01/01/2006, 2006

        Article Recommended Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 20:2 (2006): 183-206

    7. Further reading 16 items
      1. Social outsiders in Nazi Germany - Robert Gellately, Nathan Stoltzfus 2001

        Book Background Read Marion Kaplan's essay 'When the ordinary became extraordinary: German Jews reacting to Nazi persecution, 1933-1939' (pp. 66-98)

      2. German-Jewish history in modern times - Michael A. Meyer, Avraham Barkai, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr 1998

        Book Background Read essays by Avraham Barkai ('Exclusion and persecution: 1933-1938', 'In a ghetto without walls' and 'Self help in the dilemma: "To leave or to stay?"')

      3. The final solution [electronic resource] : origins and implementation 1996, 1994

        Book Background Read Avraham Barkai's essay 'Volksgemeinschaft, "Aryanization" and the Holocaust' (pp. 33-50)

      4. Germans no more: accounts of Jewish everyday life, 1933-1938 - Margarete Limberg, Hubert Rübsaat 2005

        Book Background

      5. Jewish life in Nazi Germany: dilemmas and responses - Francis R. Nicosia, David Scrase 2010

        Book Background Read Konrad Kwiet, 'Without neighbours: Daily living in Judenhauser' (pp. 117-148)

      6. At the Mind’s Limits and German-Jewish Symbiosis: Or, Améry on Guilt and the Possibility of Redemption - Robert Erlewine

        Article Background Published in Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 24:3 (1016): 140-156

      7. Jean Amery's Autobiographical Essays - Kramer, Sven Spring 2004, 2004

        Article Background Published in The Germanic Review 79:2 (2004): 137-142

      8. Aporias of belonging: Jean Améry on ‘being a Jew without Judaism’ and the tradition of conscious pariah - Magdalena Zolkos 12/2014

        Article Background Published in Journal of European Studies 44:4 (2014): 362-377

      9. The Ultimate Refuge: Suicide in the Jewish Community under the Nazis - Konrad Kwiet 01/01/1984, 1984

        Article Background Published in Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 29 (1984): 135-167

      10. On Jews and Judaism in crisis: selected essays - Gershom Gerhard Scholem 1976

        Book Background Read the essays 'Against the myth of German-Jewish dialogue', 'Once more: The German-Jewish dialogue' and 'Jews and Germans'

      11. Jews and Germans

        Article Background Controversial article by Gershom Scholem published in Commentary 42:5 (1966): 31-38

      12. Secondary literature on Victor Klemperer 4 items
        1. The last German - Bartov, Omer Dec 28, 1998

          Article Background Published in New Republic (28 December 1998): 34-42

        2. Germany's war and the Holocaust [electronic resource] : disputed histories - Bartov, Omer. 2003

          Book Background Read the chapter 'Jews as Germans: Victor Klemperer bears witness' (pp. 192-215). Published as an ebook and in hard copy

        3. The German Who Happened To Be a Jew: Time, History, and Identity in Victor Klemperer's - Román Facundo Espino 12/2015

          Article Background Published in Oxford German Studies 44:4 (2015): 383-415

        4. Victor Klemperer's Holocaust - Henry Ashby Turner 10/1999

          Article  Published in German Studies Review 22:3 (1995): 385-395

  4. Like "sheep to the slaughter": Resistance' and 'heroism' in the Holocaust, with particular reference to Marek Edelman and the Warsaw ghetto uprising 36 items
    1. Resistance during the Holocaust - surveys 6 items
      1. Resistance, Yad Vashem - Sheryl Silver Ochayon

        Webpage Recommended Film produced by Yad Vashem as part of their Video Toolbox

      2. Jewish resistance against the Nazis 2014

        Book Recommended An excellent collection edited by Patrick Henry. Read the essays by Richard Middleton-Kaplan (‘The myth of Jewish passivity’), Berel Lang (‘Why didn’t they resist more?’), Nechama Tec (‘Jewish resistance: Facts, omissions, and distortions’), Dalia Ofer ('"Three lies in history?" Modes of Jewish resistance in east European ghettos' and Avinoam Patt ('Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto'). Available as an ebook

      3. The Routledge history of the Holocaust - Jonathan C. Friedman 2010

        Book Background John M. Cox, "Jewish resistance against Nazism", 326-36

      4. Debates on the holocaust - Tom Lawson 2010

        Book Background Read the chapter ' "Like sheep to the slaughter": Debates on Jewish responses to Nazism' (pp. 235-269) - availabe as an ebook and in hard copy.

      5. Resistance : Jews and Christians who defied the Nazi terror - Tec, Nechama author. 2013

        Book Background

      6. Resisting the holocaust - Ruby Rohrlich 1998

        Book Background Read Martin Cohen's essay 'Culture and remembrance: Jewish ambivalence and antipathy to the history of resistance' (pp. 19-37)

    2. Debates over defining 'resistance' and 'heroism' in the context of the Holocaust 11 items
      1. Rethinking the Holocaust - Yehuda Bauer 2001

        Book Recommended Read the chapters 'Jewish resistance - myth or reality' (pp. 119-142) and 'Unarmed resistance and other responses' (pp. 143-166)

      2. Holocaust testimonies: the ruins of memory - Lawrence L. Langer 1991

        Book Recommended Read the chapter 'Unheroic memory: The diminished self' (pp 162-205) for a provocative analysis of both 'resistance' and 'heroism' in the context of the Holocaust

      3. Holocaust: origins, implementation, aftermath - Omer Bartov 2000

        Book Recommended Read Lawrence Langer's essay "Redefining Heroic Behaviour: The Impromptu Self and the Holocaust Experience" (pp. 235-250)

      4. Historians of the Jews and the Holocaust - David Engel c2010

        Book Background Read pp. 134-78

      5. The Spectrum of Resistance during the Holocaust: An Essay in Definition and Description - Emil Fackenheim

        Article Background Published in Modern Judaism 2:2 (1982): 113-130

      6. Thinking the unthinkable: meanings of the Holocaust - Roger S. Gottlieb 1990

        Book Background Read Roger Gottlieb's essay 'The concept of resistance: Jewish resistance during the Holocaust (pp. 327-344)

      7. Major changes within the Jewish people: proceedings of the ninth Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalem, June, 199374 - Israel Gutman, Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Conference 1996

        Book Background Read Michael Marrus' essay "Varieties of Jewish resistance: Some categories and comparisons in historical perspectives" (pp. 269-299)

      8. The historiography of the Holocaust - Dan Stone 2004

        Book Background Read Robert Rozett's essay "Jewish Resistance" (pp. 341-363)

      9. The holocaust in Israeli public debate in the 1950s: ideology and memory - Roni Stauber 2007

        Book Background Read pp. 78-96

      10. Patterns of Jewish leadership in Nazi Europe, 1933-1945: proceedings of the third Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalem, April 4-7, 1977 - Yad Vashem International Historical Conference 1979

        Book Background Shmuel Krakowski, "The Opposition to the Judenraete by the Jewish Armed Resistance"

    3. The Warsaw ghetto uprising - context and interpretations 10 items
      1. Admitting the Holocaust [electronic resource] : collected essays - Langer, Lawrence L. 1995

        Book Recommended Read the chapter 'A tainted legacy: Remembering the Warsaw ghetto' (pp. 31-40)

      2. The Leadership of the Jewish Combat Organization during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: A Reassessment - Havi Dreifuss 2017/05/16

        Article Recommended Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 31:1 (2017): 24-60

      3. The Development of the Narrative of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - MOSHE ARENS 01/2008

        Article Recommended Published in Israel Affairs 14:1 (2008): 6-28

      4. The Memory of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - Markus Meckl 12/2008

        Article Recommended Published in European Legacy: Towards New Paradigms 13:7 (2008): 815-824

      5. Warsaw Ghetto: The Unfinished Film Friday, 20 Jan 2012

        Audio-visual document Background

      6. Resistance: the Warsaw Ghetto uprising - Israel Gutman 1994

        Book Background Read pp. 146-259

      7. Lessons and legacies: Vol. 6: New currents in Holocaust research - Jeffry M. Diefendorf, Lessons & Legacies Conference 2004

        Book Background Lenore J. Weitzman, "Women of Courage: The Lashayirot (Couriers) in the Jewish resistance during the Holocaust", 112-52

      8. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943: ghetto, underground, revolt - Israel Gutman 1982

        Book Background Read Part III Revolt (pp. 336-430)

      9. The Warsaw Ghetto: a guide to the perished city - Barbara Engelking-Boni, Jacek Leociak 2009

        Book Background Read the chapter 'The uprising' (pp. 775-800)

      10. Ghettos

        Chapter Background Read Martin Dean's essay 'Ghettos' (pp. 340-353) in Peter Hayes and John Roth (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies - accessbile online

    4. The Warsaw ghetto uprising: Marek Edelman and the perspectives of the ZOB leadership 9 items
      1. Life in the ghettos during the Holocaust - John K. Roth, Eric Sterling 2005

        Book Essential Read Michael Berenbaum's essay 'Some clarifications on the Warsaw ghetto uprising: Based on interviews with Marek Edelman and Simha Rotem' (pp. 17-25)

      2. Europe in the eyes of survivors of the Holocaust 2014

        Book Recommended Read Natalia Aleksiun's essay ' "What matters most is life itself': Europe in the eyes of Marek Edelman' (pp. 91-126

      3. The Curious Case of Marek Edelman - Dawidowicz, Lucy S Mar 1987

        Article Recommended A very controversial article by the American Jewish historian Lucy Dawidowicz criticizing Edelman's decision to remain living in Poland after the war. Published in Commentary 83:3 (1987)

      4. The ghetto fights - Marek Edelman 1990

        Book Background A memoir first written in 1945

      5. A surplus of memory: chronicle of the Warsaw ghetto uprising - Yitzhak Zuckerman, Barbara Harshav c1993

        Book Background Read pages 170-262 (on the ZOB) and 348-376 (on the ghetto uprising). Zuckerman was second in command of the ZOB.

      6. HOLOCAUST HISTORY: Ghetto Fighter: Yitzhak Zuckerman and the Jewish Underground in Warsaw - MICHAEL R. MARRUS 1995

        Article Recommended Published in American Scholar 64:2 (1995): 277-284

      7. Memoirs of a Warsaw Ghetto fighter - Śimhah Rotem 1994

        Book Background Memoir by a member of ZOB who played a key role as a courier, and helping surviving ghetto fighters escape to the 'Aryan' sde through the sewers. Read chapters 2 and 3 (pp. 22-58)

      8. Fighting for her people: Zivia Lubetkin, 1914-1978 - Belah Guṭerman, Ora Cummings 2014

        Book Background Memoir by a leading woman in the ZOB, read chapter 5 The Warsaw ghetto uprising, February-March 1943' (pp. 205-266)

      9. Shoah: the complete text of the acclaimed Holocaust film - Claude Lanzmann 1995

        Book Background Features an interview with Simha Rotem, and a brief appearance by Yitzhak Zuckerman (pp. 182-185); the transcript of the final sequence in Lanzmann's influential film Shoah (accessible via Box of Broadcasts)

  5. Victims as perpetrators? 'Privileged' Jews and inhabiting the 'grey zone': The Judenrate and the Jewish police 34 items
    1. The drowned and the saved - Primo Levi 1988

      Book Essential Read Levi's influential essay 'The grey zone' (pp. 22-51)

    2. Judging "privileged" Jews: Holocaust ethics, representation, and the "Grey zone" - Adam Brown 2013 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended An influential recent contribution to the debate. Particularly relevant are the introduction (pp. 1-41) and chapter 1 on Levi's concept (pp. 42-75)

    3. Problems Unique to the Holocaust 2013

      Book Recommended Read Susan Pentlin's essay 'Holocaust victims of privilege' (pp. 25-42)

    4. Jewish honor courts: revenge, retribution, and reconciliation in Europe and Israel after the Holocaust - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 2015

      Book Recommended Read essays by David Engel ('Why punish collaborators?'), Katarzyna Person ('Jews accusing Jews: Denunciations of alleged collaborators in Jewish Honor Courts') and Rivka Brot ('The grey zone of collaboration and the Israeli courtroom')

    5. Judenrat: the Jewish councils in Eastern Europe under Nazi occupation - Isaiah Trunk c1996

      Book Background Read the chapters 'The ghetto police', 'Opposition to the Jewish Councils and the ghetto police' and 'Postwar trials of councilmen and ghetto police'

    6. Ethics after the Holocaust: perspectives, critiques and responses - John K. Roth 1999

      Book Background Read David Hirsch's essay "The Gray Zone or the banality of evil" (pp. 90-147)

    7. Primo Levi: The Drowned, the Saved and the "Gray Zone" - Ilona Klein

      Article Background Published in the Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 7: 77-89; accessible online via FindIt@Bham

    8. Ordinary Jews: choice and survival during the Holocaust - Evgeny Finkel 2017

      Book Background Read chapter 3 ('What did the Jews know?'), chapter 4 ('Cooperation and collaboration') and chapter 5 ('Coping and compliance')

    9. Primo Levi's : Implications for Post-Holocaust Ethics - Sander H. Lee 08/2016

      Article Background Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 30:2 (2016): 276-297

    10. Lessons and legacies II: teaching the Holocaust in a changing world - Donald G. Schilling c1998

      Book Background Read Dina Porat's essay "Jewish Decision-Making during the Holocaust"(pp. 85-102)

    11. Case study 1: The Judenrate/Jewish leadership - Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski and Reszo Kastner 14 items
      1. Nazi Collaborators Wednesday, 11 Jan 2012

        Audio-visual document Recommended A well researched documentary on Rumkowski; it is telling that it appeared as an episode in a series entitled Nazi Collaborators!

      2. The Jew who Dealt with Nazis - Killing Kasztner: Storyville Friday, 29 May 2009

        Audio-visual document Recommended A well researched documentary on Kasztner first broadcast on BBC4

      3. The man who was murdered twice: the life, trial and death of Israel Kasztner - Yeḥi'am Ṿaits, Chaya Naor 2011

        Book Background

      4. The difficulties of creating a Holocaust archive: Yad Vashem and Israel Kastner 1947–1948 - Boaz Cohen 02/09/2014

        Article Recommended Published in Jewish Culture and History 15:3 (2014): 173-187

      5. History, Law, Narrative: The “Kastner Affair” – Fifty Years Later - Hemda Gur-Arie 01/2010

        Article Recommended Published in Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust 24:1 (2010): 223-268

      6. The Kasztner report: the report of the Budapest Jewish Rescue Committee, 1942-1945 - Kasztner Rezső, Karsai László, Molnár Judit, The International Institute for Holocaust Research (Jerusalem) 2013

        Book Background

      7. Collective amnesias: The trial and holocaust consciousness in Israel, 1948–1955 - Marouf Hasian 03/2004

        Article Background Published in Southern Communication Journal 69:2 (2004): 136-156

      8. Escaping Auschwitz: a culture of forgetting - Ruth Linn 2004

        Book Background Read pp. 40-52 (relating to Kasztner) and the chapter 'Corrupt saviors' (pp. 94-97)

      9. The seventh million: the Israelis and the Holocaust - Tom Segev 2000

        Book Background Read pp. 255-310 (on Kasztner and his trial)

      10. The Development of Holocaust Consciousness in Israel: The Nuremberg, Kapos, Kastner, and Eichmann Trials - Hanna Yablonka and Moshe Tlamim 2003

        Article Background Published in Israel Studies 8:3 (2003): 1-24

      11. Jewish Histories of the Holocaust: New Transnational Approaches - Norman J.W. Goda 2014 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Read Gordon Horwitz' essay 'An overwhelming presence: Reflections on Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski and his place in our understanding of the Lodz ghetto' (pp. 55-72), available both as an ebook and in hard copy

      12. Gray zones: ambiguity and compromise in the Holocaust and its aftermath - Jonathan Petropoulos, John K. Roth 2005

        Book Recommended Read Richard Rubenstein's essay 'Gray into black: The case of Mordechaii Chaim Rumkowski' (pp. 299-310)

      13. Reassessment of the image of Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski - Michal Unger, International Institute for Holocaust Research 2004

        Book Recommended

    12. Case study 2: The Jewish police in the ghettos of Nazi-occupied Europe 10 items
      1. Am I a murderer?: testament of a Jewish ghetto policeman - Calel Perechodnik, Frank Fox 1996

        Book Essential A powerful and controversial memoir from the perspective of a member of the Jewish police, worth reading in its entirety, but pay particular attention to Perechodnik's Preface (xxi-xxxi), the first three chapters ('War', 'The aktion'and 'After the aktion'), the Conclusion (pp. 195-202) and 'Last will and testament of Calel Perechodnik' (pp/ 209-211). The Foreword (ix-xix) and Afterword (213-225) provide useful context.

      2. Focusing on Galicia: Jews, Poles, Ukranians, 1772-1918 - Yiśrael Bartal, Antony Polonsky, American Association for Polish-Jewish Studies, Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies (Oxford, England) 1999

        Book Recommended David Engel, "On the Bowdlerization of a Holocaust Testimony: The Wartime Journal of Calek Perechodnik", 316-29

      3. Polish-Jewish relations in North America - Mieczysław B. Biskupski, Antony Polonsky, American Association for Polish-Jewish Studies, Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies (Oxford, England) 2007

        Book Recommended Read Andrzej Kaczynski's article 'New edition of the memoirs of a Jewish policeman: The true testimony of Perechodnik, reprinted from Rzeczpospolita, 11 December 2004' (pp. 599-603)

      4. The clandestine history of the Kovno Jewish ghetto police - Samuel Schalkowsky, Samuel D. Kassow 2014

        Book Background Particularly relevant pp. ix-xvii, 77-157, 187-207 and 363-373

      5. A Jewish policeman In Lwów: an early account 1941-1943 - Ben Zion Redner, Jerzy Michalowicz 2015

        Book Background

      6. Making Holocaust memory - Gabriel N. Finder, American Association for Polish-Jewish Studies, Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies (Oxford, England) 2008

        Book Background Gabriel N Finder and Alexander V Prusin, "Jewish Collaborators on Trial in Poland 1944-1956" (pp.122-148)

      7. Holocaust - David Cesarani 2004

        Book Background Read Dov Levin's essay "How the Jewish Police in the Kovno Ghetto saw itself" in David Cesarani (ed.), Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Holocaust Studies, Volume IV: 61-98

      8. Dov Levin, "How the Jewish Police in the Kovno ghetto saw itself"

        Webpage Background Published in Yad Vashem Studies 29 (2001): 183-241 - accessible online from Yad Vashem's website:

      9. Patterns of Jewish leadership in Nazi Europe, 1933-1945: proceedings of the third Yad Vashem International Historical Conference, Jerusalem, April 4-7, 1977 - Yad Vashem International Historical Conference 1979

        Book Background Aharon Weiss, "The Relations between the Judenrat and the Jewish Police", 201-18

      10. The Clandestine history of the Kovno Jewish Ghetto Police - Schalkowsky, Samuel ; Kassow, Samuel D. 2014

        Book Background

  6. Bystanders and 'neighbours' as perpetrators? The case of Jedwabne Poland 19 items
    1. Key texts 5 items
      1. Contested memories [electronic resource] : Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and its aftermath 2003

        Book Essential Read Jan Gross' essay 'Jews and their Polish neighbours: The case of Jedwabne in the summer of 1941' (pp. 69-82) - available as both an ebook and in hard copy

      2. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland - Gross, Jan Tomasz. c2001.

        Book Recommended The book that started the controversy - available as an ebook and in hard copy

      3. A Response - Jan T. Gross 2002

        Article Recommended Published in Slavic Review 61:3 (202): 483-489

      4. Lessons and legacies XII : new directions in Holocaust research and education - Lessons & Legacies Conference (12th : 2012 : Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.) 2017

        Book Recommended

    2. Further reading 14 items
      1. Jedwabne: Revisiting the Evidence and Nature of the Crime - D. Stola 01/03/2003

        Article Recommended Published in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 17:1 (2003): 139-152

      2. Rethinking Poles and Jews: troubled past, brighter future - Robert D. Cherry, Annamaria Orla-Bukowska c2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Background Read Natalia Aleksiun's essay ' Polish historians respond to Jedwabne' (pp. 165-188)

      3. Collective Remembrance in Jedwabne: Unsettled Memory of World War II in Postcommunist Poland - Ewa Wolentarska-Ochman 2006

        Article Recommended Published in History & Memory 18:1: 152-178

      4. The Jedwabne Village Green?: The Memory and Counter-Memory of the Crime - Sawomir Kapralski 2006

        Article Recommended Published in History & Memory 18:1 (2006): 179-194

      5. Response to Sławomir Kapralski - Ewa Wolentarska-Ochman 2006

        Article Background Published in History & Memory 18:1: 195-197

      6. Poles and Jews. COMING TO TERMS. - Brumberg, Abraham ;

        Book Background Published in Foreign Affairs 61:3 (2002): 174-187

      7. The Nazis and “The East”: Jedwabne's Circle of Hell - Norman M. Naimark 2002

        Article Background Published in Slavic Review 61:3 (2002): 476-482

      8. The Nazis and “The East”: Jedwabne's Circle of Hell - Norman M. Naimark 2002

        Article Background Published in Slavic Review 61:3 (2002): 476-482

  7. On going debates in the study of women, gender and the Holocaust - surveys 23 items
    1. Surveys on wommen/gender and the Holocaust 4 items
      1. Women - Lenore J. Weitzman 25/11/2010

        Chapter Recommended Read Lenore Weitzman's succinct survey of the field (pp. 2013-217) in Peter Hayes and John Roth (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies - accessible online

      2. Experience and expression [electronic resource] : women, the Nazis, and the Holocaust 2003

        Book Background Read Pascale Bos' essay 'Women and the Holocaust: Analysing gender difference (pp. 23-50); available as an ebook and in hard copy

      3. Different horrors, same hell: gender and the Holocaust - Myrna Goldenberg, Amy H. Shapiro c2013

        Book Background

      4. Women in the Holocaust : a feminist history - Waxman, Zoë author. 2017

        Book Background

    2. Key controversies on women/gender and the Holocaust 5 items
      1. Auschwitz and the Professors - Schoenfeld, Gabriel Jun 1, 1998

        Article Essential Published in Commentary 105:6 (1 June 1998)

      2. Holocaust Studies - Schoenfeld, GabrielCritics Aug 1, 1998

        Article Recommended Responses to Schoenfeld's article, published in Commentary 106:2 (1 August 1998)

      3. Gender, Genocide, and Jewish Memory - Sara R. Horowitz 2000

        Article Recommended Published in Prooftexts 20:1&2: 159-190

      4. CONTROVERSY: Feminist Approaches to the Holocaust - Gabriel Schoenfeld 04/2001

        Article Recommended Schoenfeld's response to Horowitz' article, published in Prooftexts 21:2 (2001): 277-179

      5. CONTROVERSY: A Response to Gabriel Schoenfeld - Sara R. Horowitz 04/2001

        Article Recommended Horowitz' response to Scoenfeld, published in Prooftexts 21:2 (2001): 279-283

    3. Key areas of debate 14 items
      1. Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual Volume 1 - Simon Wiesenthal Center Multimedia Learning Center

        Webpage Recommended Read Joan Ringelheim mark 1's essay 'The unethical and the unspeakable: Women and the Holocaust', published in the Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual, volume 1 (1984), accessible online

      2. Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research - Joan Ringelheim 1985

        Article Recommended Ringelheim mark II, critiiquing and modifying her own earlier approach, published in Signs 10:4 (1985): 741-761

      3. Comment on Ringelheim's "Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research" - Kathryn Pyne Addelson 1987

        Article Background Publishedm in Signs 12:4 (1987): 830-833

      4. Lessons Learned from Gentle Heroism: Women's Holocaust Narratives - Myrna Goldenberg 1996

        Article Recommended Key article by one of the founders of the field of researching on women and the Holocaust, published in the Annals of thye American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 548 (1996): 78-93

      5. Women and the Holocaust: Analyzing gender difference - Pascale Bos 2003

        Chapter Recommended Read Pascale Bos' essay 'Women and the Holocaust: Analysing gender difference (pp. 23-50); available as an ebook and in hard copy

      6. Regarding the Pain of Women: Questions of Gender and the Arts of Holocaust Memory - James E. Young 2009

        Article Recommended Published in PMLA 124:5 (2009): 1778-1786

      7. Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust [electronic resource] 2010

        Book Recommended Groundbreaking edited collection by Sonja Hedgepeth and Rochelle Saidel, available as an ebook and in hard copy

      8. ‘And it was something we didn’t talk about’: Rape of Jewish Women during the Holocaust - Helene Sinnreich

        Article Recommended Published in Holocaust Studies 14:2 (2008)@ 1-22

      9. Thoughts on the Intersection of Rape and Rassenchande during the Holocaust - Steven T. Katz 2012/11/25

        Article Recommended Published in Modern Judaism 32:3 (2012): 293-322

      10. Women's agency and survival strategies during the holocaust - Judith Tydor Baumel 1999-5

        Article Background Published in Women's Studies International Forum 22:3 (1999): 329-347

      11. Unheard Testimony, Untold Stories: the representation of women's Holocaust experiences - Zoë Waxman

        Article Background Published in Women's Historical Review 12:4 (2003): 661-667

      12. Gendered wars, gendered memories : feminist conversations on war, genocide and political violence 2016

        Book Background Read Regina Muhlhaiuser's essay 'From a world beyond the historicity of denial: Sexual violence against Jewish women during the War of Annihilation, 1941-1945' (pp. 42-62)

  8. Nativizing the Holocaust: Holocaust Memorial Day and Britain's Promise to Remember: The Prime Minister's Holocaust Commission Report 14 items
    1. Prime Minister’s Holocaust Commission Report - GOV.UK

      Webpage Essential Report unveiled on the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, on Britain's national Holocaust Memorial Day (27 January 2015)

    2. Britain’s promise to forget: some historiographical reflections on - Tom Lawson 03/07/2017

      Article Recommended Published in Holocaust Studies 23:3 (2017)

    3. Further reading 12 items
      1. What do young people know and understand about the Holocaust? - Centre for Holocaust Education

        Webpage Recommended An important recent survey by the Insitute of Education, London. Check Key Findings

      2. Welcome | Holocaust Memorial Day Trust

        Webpage Recommended Website for Britain's Holocaust Memorial Day

      3. UK Holocaust Memorial Foundation - GOV.UK

        Webpage Recommended Website of the UK Holocaust Memorial Foundation, established as a result of the publication of Britain's Promise to Remember

      4. The Holocaust in the British imagination: the official mind and beyond, 1945 to the present - Tony Kushner 03/07/2017

        Article Background Published in Holocaust Studies 23:3 (2017): 364-384

      5. Day of Remembrance or Day of Forgetting? Or, Why Britain Does Not Need a Holocaust Memorial Day - D. Stone 10/2000

        Article Background Published in Patterns of Prejudice 34:4 (2000): 53-59

      6. Seizing the Day: Why Britain Will Benefit from Holocaust Memorial Day - D. Cesarani 10/2000

        Article Background A response to Dan Stone's article, published in Patters of Prejudice 34:4 (2000): 61-66

      7. Britain's holocaust memorial days: Reshaping the past in the service of the present - Donald Bloxham 03/2002

        Article Background Published in Immigrants & Minorities 21:1-2 (2002): 41-62

      8. Too Little, Too Late? Reflections on Britain's Holocaust Memorial Day - Tony Kushner 01/2004

        Article Background Published in Journal of Israel History 23:1 (2004): 116-129

      9. Britain’s holocaust memorial day: A case of post-cold war wish-fulfillment, or brazen hypocristy? - Mark Levene 2006-4

        Article Background Published in Human Rights Review 7:3 (2006): 26-59

      10. The Holocaust in the National Curriculum after 25 years - Andy Pearce 03/07/2017

        Article Background Published in Holocaust Studies 23:3 (2017): 231-262